1790 - The capital city of the U.S. moved to Philadelphia from New York City.
1807 - Robert Fulton's "North River Steam Boat" (known as the "Clermont") began heading up New York's Hudson River on its successful round-trip to Albany.
1815 - Napoleon began serving his exile when he arrived at the island of St. Helena.
1859 - A hot air balloon was used to carry mail for the first time. John Wise left Lafayette, IN, for New York City with 100 letters. He had to land after only 27 miles.
1863 - Federal batteries and ships bombarded Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC, harbor during the Civil War.
1894 - John Wadsworth of Louisville set a major league record when he gave up 28 base hits in a single game.
1896 - The Klondike gold rush was set off by George Carmack discovering gold on Rabbit Creek in Alaska.
1903 - Joseph Pulitzer donated a million dollars to Columbia University. This started the Pulitzer Prizes in his name.
1915 - Charles F. Kettering received a patent for the first electric ignition device.
1939 - The movie "Wizard of Oz" premiered in New York. It had premiered in Hollywood on August 15.
1943 - The Allied conquest of Sicily was completed as U.S. and British forces entered Messina.
1945 - The nationalists of Indonesia declared their independence from the Netherlands.
1961 - The Communist East German government completed the construction of the Berlin Wall.
1973 - Lee Trevino got the first hole in one of his career at the U.S.I. Golf Classic, in Sutton, MA.
1977 - Florists Transworld Delivery (FTD) reported that in one day the number of orders for flowers to be delivered to Graceland had surpassed the number for any other event in the company's history.
1978 - Maxie Anderson, Ben Abruzzo and Larry Newman became the first to land after a successful trans-Atlantic balloon flight. The voyage began in Presque Isle, ME and ended in Miserey, France.
1982 - The U.S. Senate approved an immigration bill that granted permanent resident status to illegal aliens who had arrived in the United States before 1977.
1985 - A year-long strike began when 1,400 Geo. A. Hormel and Co. meat packers walked off the job.
1987 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed above 2,700 for the first time.
1992 - Woody Allen admitted to being romantically involved with Soon-Yi Previn. The girl was the adopted daughter of Mia Farrow, Allen's longtime companion.
1996 - A military cargo plane crashed in Wyoming killing eight crewmembers and a Secret Service employee. The plane was carrying gear for U.S. President Clinton.
1996 - Ross Perot was announced to be the Reform Party's presidential candidate. It was the party's first-ever candidate.
1998 - U.S. President Clinton admitted to having an improper relationship with Monica Lewinsky, a White House intern.
1998 - NationsBank and BankAmerica merge to create the largest U.S. bank.
1998 - Russia devalued the ruble.
2002 - In Santa Rosa, CA, the Charles M. Schulz Museum opened to the public.