August 30


1146 - European leaders outlawed the crossbow.

1645 - American Indians and the Dutch made a peace treaty at New Amsterdam. New Amsterdam later became known as New York.

1682 - William Penn sailed from England and later established the colony of Pennsylvania in America.

1780 - General Benedict Arnold secretly promised to surrender the West Point fort to the British army.

1806 - New York City's second daily newspaper, the "Daily Advertiser," was published for the last time.

1809 - Charles Doolittle Walcott first discovered fossils near Burgess Pass. He named the site Burgess Shale after nearby Mt. Burgess.

1862 - The Confederates defeated Union forces at the second Battle of Bull Run in Manassas, VA.

1905 - Ty Cobb made his major league batting debut with the Detroit Tigers.

1928 - The Independence of India League was established in India.

1941 - During World War II, the Nazis severed the last railroad link between Leningrad and the rest of the Soviet Union.

1945 - General Douglas MacArthur set up Allied occupation headquarters in Japan.

1951 - The Philippines and the United States signed a defense pact.

1956 - In Louisianna, the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway opened.

1960 - A partial blockade was imposed on West Berlin by East Germany.

1963 - The "Hotline" between Moscow and Washington, DC, went into operation.

1965 - Thurgood Marshall was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as a Supreme Court justice. Marshall was the first black justice to sit on the Supreme Court.

1982 - P.L.O. leader Yasir Arafat left Beirut for Greece.

1983 - The space shuttle Challenger blasted off with Guion S. Bluford Jr. aboard. He was the first black American to travel in space.

1984 - The space shuttle Discovery lifted off for the first time. On the voyage three communications satellites were deployed.

1984 - U.S. President Ronald Reagan, and several others, were inducted into the Sportscasters Hall of Fame.

1991 - The Soviet republic of Azerbaijan declared its independence.

1993 - On CBS-TV "The Late Show with David Letterman" premiered.

1994 - Rosa Parks was robbed and beaten by Joseph Skipper. Parks was known for her refusal to give up her seat on a bus in 1955, which sparked the civil rights movement.

1994 - The largest U.S. defense contractor was created when the Lockheed and Martin Marietta corporations agreed to a merger.

1996 - An expedition to raise part of the Titanic failed when the nylon lines being used to raise part of the hull snapped.

1999 - The residents of East Timor overwhelmingly voted for independence from Indonesia. The U.N. announced the result on September 4.

2002 - Conoco Inc. and Phillips Petroleum merged to create ConocoPhillips. The new company was the third largest integrated energy company and the second largest refining company in the U.S.